Global Micro Data Center Market Research Report 2018-2023 by Players, Regions, Product Types & Applications

The global Micro Data Center market is valued at XX million USD in 2017 and is expected to reach XX million USD by the end of 2023, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2017 and 2023.

This report offers an overview of the market trends, drivers, and barriers with respect to the Micro Data Center market. It also provides a detailed overview of the market of different regions across United States, Europe, China, Japan, India, Southeast Asia and Others. The report categorizes Micro Data Center market by by Rack Size, and application. Detailed analysis of key players, along with key growth strategies adopted by them is also covered in this report on Micro Data Center market is valued at XX million USD in 2017 and is expected to reach XX million USD by the end of 2023, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2017 and 2023.

This report focuses Global market, it covers details as following:

Key Players
Eaton Corporation plc
Hitachi Ltd.
Panduit Corp.
Zellabox Dataracks
Hewlett Packard Enterprise Development LP
Instant Data Centers
Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd.
Rittal GmbH & Co. KG
Schneider Electric SE

Key Regions
North America
United States
Canada
Latin America
Mexico
Brazil
Argentina
Others
Europe
Germany
United Kingdom
France
Italy
Spain
Russia
Netherland
Others
Asia & Pacific
China
Japan
India
Korea
Australia
Southeast Asia
Indonesia
Thailand
Philippines
Vietnam
Singapore
Malaysia
Others
Africa & Middle East
South Africa
Egypt
Turkey
Saudi Arabia
Iran
Others

Main types of products
Micro Data Center Market, by Rack Size
Less than 25 U
25 U - 40 U
More than 40 U
Micro Data Center Market, by

Micro Data Center Market, by Key Consumer
IT and Telecom
Retail
Education
Healthcare
Energy

Table of Contents

Global Micro Data Center Market Research Report 2017-2022 by Players, Regions, Product Types & Applications
Chapter One Methodology and Data Source
1.1 Methodology/Research Approach
1.1.1 Research Programs/Design
1.1.2 Market Size Estimation
1.1.3 Market Breakdown and Data Triangulation
1.2 Data Source
1.2.1 Secondary Sources
1.2.2 Primary Sources
1.3 Disclaimer

Chapter Two Micro Data Center Market Overview
2.1 Market Coverage
2.2 Global Micro Data Center Market Sales Volume Revenue and Price 2012-2017

Chapter Three Micro Data Center by Key Players 2013-2018
3.1 Global Micro Data Center Sales Volume Market Share by Key Players 2013-2018
3.2 Global Micro Data Center Revenue Share by Key Players 2013-2018
3.3 Global Key Players Micro Data Center Key Product Model and Market Performance
3.4 Global Key Players Micro Data Center Key Target Consumers and Market Performance

Chapter Four Micro Data Center by Regions 2013-2018
4.1 Global Micro Data Center Sales Market Share by Regions 2013-2018
4.2 Global Micro Data Center Revenue Market Share by Regions 2013-2018
4.3 Global Micro Data Center Price by Regions 2013-2018
4.4 North America
4.4.1 United States
4.4.2 Canada
4.5 Latin America
4.5.1 Mexico
4.5.2 Brazil
4.5.3 Argentina
4.5.4 Others in Latin America
4.6 Europe
4.6.1 Germany
4.6.2 United Kingdom
4.6.3 France
4.6.4 Italy
4.6.5 Spain
4.6.6 Russia
4.6.7 Netherland
4.6.8 Others in Europe
4.7 Asia & Pacific
4.7.1 China
4.7.2 Japan
4.7.3 India
4.7.4 Korea
4.7.5 Australia
4.7.6 Southeast Asia
4.7.6.1 Indonesia
4.7.6.2 Thailand
4.7.6.3 Philippines
4.7.6.4 Vietnam
4.7.6.5 Singapore
4.7.6.6 Malaysia
4.7.6.7 Others in Southeast Asia
4.8 Africa & Middle East
4.8.1 South Africa
4.8.2 Egypt
4.8.3 Turkey
4.8.4 Saudi Arabia
4.8.5 Iran
4.8.6 Others in Africa & Middle East

Chapter Five Micro Data Center Market by Product Types
5.1 Micro Data Center, by Rack Size 2013-2018
5.1.1 Global Micro Data Center Sales Market Share by Rack Size 2013-2018
5.1.2 Global Micro Data Center Revenue Market Share by Rack Size 2013-2018
5.1.3 Global Micro Data Center Price by Rack Size 2013-2018
5.1.4 Less than 25 U
5.1.5 25 U - 40 U
5.1.6 More than 40 U
5.2 Micro Data Center, by 2013-2018

Chapter Six Global Key Players Profile
6.1 Eaton Corporation plc
6.1.1 Eaton Corporation plc Company Details and Competitors
6.1.2 Eaton Corporation plc Key Micro Data Center Models and Performance
6.1.3 Eaton Corporation plc Micro Data Center Business SWOT Analysis and Forecast
6.1.4 Eaton Corporation plc Micro Data Center Sales Volume Revenue Price Cost and Gross Margin
6.2 Hitachi Ltd.
6.2.1 Hitachi Ltd. Company Details and Competitors
6.2.2 Hitachi Ltd. Key Micro Data Center Models and Performance
6.2.3 Hitachi Ltd. Micro Data Center Business SWOT Analysis and Forecast
6.2.4 Hitachi Ltd. Micro Data Center Sales Volume Revenue Price Cost and Gross Margin
6.3 Panduit Corp.
6.3.1 Panduit Corp. Company Details and Competitors
6.3.2 Panduit Corp. Key Micro Data Center Models and Performance
6.3.3 Panduit Corp. Micro Data Center Business SWOT Analysis and Forecast
6.3.4 Panduit Corp. Micro Data Center Sales Volume Revenue Price Cost and Gross Margin
6.4 Zellabox Dataracks
6.4.1 Zellabox Dataracks Company Details and Competitors
6.4.2 Zellabox Dataracks Key Micro Data Center Models and Performance
6.4.3 Zellabox Dataracks Micro Data Center Business SWOT Analysis and Forecast
6.4.4 Zellabox Dataracks Micro Data Center Sales Volume Revenue Price Cost and Gross Margin
6.5 Hewlett Packard Enterprise Development LP
6.5.1 Hewlett Packard Enterprise Development LP Company Details and Competitors
6.5.2 Hewlett Packard Enterprise Development LP Key Micro Data Center Models and Performance
6.5.3 Hewlett Packard Enterprise Development LP Micro Data Center Business SWOT Analysis and Forecast
6.5.4 Hewlett Packard Enterprise Development LP Micro Data Center Sales Volume Revenue Price Cost and Gross Margin
6.6 Instant Data Centers
6.6.1 Instant Data Centers Company Details and Competitors
6.6.2 Instant Data Centers Key Micro Data Center Models and Performance
6.6.3 Instant Data Centers Micro Data Center Business SWOT Analysis and Forecast
6.6.4 Instant Data Centers Micro Data Center Sales Volume Revenue Price Cost and Gross Margin
6.7 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd.
6.7.1 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. Company Details and Competitors
6.7.2 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. Key Micro Data Center Models and Performance
6.7.3 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. Micro Data Center Business SWOT Analysis and Forecast
6.7.4 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. Micro Data Center Sales Volume Revenue Price Cost and Gross Margin
6.8 Rittal GmbH & Co. KG
6.8.1 Rittal GmbH & Co. KG Company Details and Competitors
6.8.2 Rittal GmbH & Co. KG Key Micro Data Center Models and Performance
6.8.3 Rittal GmbH & Co. KG Micro Data Center Business SWOT Analysis and Forecast
6.8.4 Rittal GmbH & Co. KG Micro Data Center Sales Volume Revenue Price Cost and Gross Margin
6.9 Schneider Electric SE
6.9.1 Schneider Electric SE Company Details and Competitors
6.9.2 Schneider Electric SE Key Micro Data Center Models and Performance
6.9.3 Schneider Electric SE Micro Data Center Business SWOT Analysis and Forecast
6.9.4 Schneider Electric SE Micro Data Center Sales Volume Revenue Price Cost and Gross Margin

Chapter Seven Micro Data Center by Appliance 2013-2018
7.1 Global Micro Data Center Sales Market Share by Appliance 2013-2018
7.2 IT and Telecom
7.3 Retail
7.4 Education
7.5 Healthcare
7.6 Energy
7.7 Consuming Habit and Preference

Chapter Eight Industry Chain and Supply Chain
8.1 Micro Data Center Industry Chain Structure
8.1.1 R&D
8.1.2 Raw Materials (Components)
8.1.3 Manufacturing Plants
8.1.4 Regional Trading (Import Export and Local Sales)
8.1.5 Online Sales Channel
8.1.6 Offline Channel
8.1.7 End Users
8.2 Micro Data Center Manufacturing
8.2.1 Key Components
8.2.2 Assembly Manufacturing
8.3 Consumer Preference
8.4 Behavioral Habits
8.5 Marketing Environment

Chapter Nine Global Micro Data Center Market Size (Sales and Revenue) Forecast (2018-2023)
9.1 Global Micro Data Center Sales (K Units), Revenue (Million USD) Forecast (2018-2023)
9.2 Global Micro Data Center Sales (K Units) Forecast by Regions (2018-2023)
9.3 Global Micro Data Center Sales (K Units) Forecast by Application (2018-2023)
9.4 Global Micro Data Center Sales (K Units) Forecast by Rack Size (2018-2023)
9.5 Global Micro Data Center Sales (K Units) Forecast by (2018-2023)

Chapter Ten Development Trend and Research Conclusion
10.1 Development Trend
10.2 Research Conclusion


List of Figures, Tables and Charts Available in Global Micro Data Center Market Research Report 2018-2023 by Players, Regions, Product Types & Applications

List of Tables and Figures

Table Global Micro Data Center Sales Volume (K Units), Revenue (Million USD) and Price (USD/Unit)(2013-2018)
Figure Global Micro Data Center Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate (2013-2018)
Figure Global Micro Data Center Sales Volume (K Units) and Growth Rate (2013-2018)
Table Global Micro Data Center Sales Volume (K Units) by Key Players (2013-2018)
Table Global Micro Data Center Sales Volume Market Share by Key Players (2013-2018)
Figure Global Micro Data Center Sales Volume Market Share by Key Players 2017
Figure Global Micro Data Center Sales Volume Market Share by Key Players 2018
Table Global Micro Data Center Revenue (Million USD) by Key Players (2013-2018)
Table Global Micro Data Center Revenue Market Share by Key Players (2013-2018)
Figure Global Micro Data Center Revenue Market Share by Key Players 2017
Figure Global Micro Data Center Revenue Market Share by Key Players 2018
Table Global Key Players Key Product Model and Market Performance
Table Global Key Players Key Target Consumers and Market Performance
Table Global Micro Data Center Sales (K Units) by Regions (2013-2018)
Table Global Micro Data Center Sales Share by Regions (2013-2018)
Figure Global Micro Data Center Sales Market Share by Regions in 2017
Figure Global Micro Data Center Sales Market Share by Regions in 2018
Table Global Micro Data Center Revenue (Million USD) by Regions (2013-2018)
Table Global Micro Data Center Revenue Market Share by Regions (2013-2018)
Figure Global Micro Data Center Revenue Market Share by Regions in 2017
Figure Global Micro Data Center Revenue Market Share by Regions in 2018
Table Global Micro Data Center Price (USD/Unit) by Regions (2013-2018)
Table North America Micro Data Center Sales (K Units) by Regions (2013-2018)
Table North America Micro Data Center Revenue (Million USD) by Regions (2013-2018)
Table North America Micro Data Center Sales Volume (K Units) by Key Players 2013-2018
Figure North America Micro Data Center Sales (K Units) and Growth Rate (2013-2018)
Table Latin America Micro Data Center Sales (K Units) by Regions (2013-2018)
Table Latin America Micro Data Center Revenue (Million USD) by Regions (2013-2018)
Table Latin America Micro Data Center Sales Volume (K Units) by Key Players (2013-2018)
Figure Latin America Micro Data Center Sales (K Units) and Growth Rate (2013-2018)
Table Europe Micro Data Center Sales (K Units) by Regions (2013-2018)
Table Europe Micro Data Center Revenue (Million USD) by Regions (2013-2018)
Table Europe Micro Data Center Sales Volume (K Units) by Key Players (2013-2018)
Figure Europe Micro Data Center Sales (K Units) and Growth Rate (2013-2018)
Table Asia & Pacific Micro Data Center Sales (K Units) by Regions (2013-2018)
Table Asia & Pacific Micro Data Center Revenue (Million USD) by Regions (2013-2018)
Table Asia & Pacific Micro Data Center Sales Volume (K Units) by Key Players (2013-2018)
Figure Asia & Pacific Micro Data Center Sales (K Units) and Growth Rate (2013-2018)
Table Africa & Middle East Micro Data Center Sales (K Units) by Regions (2013-2018)
Table Africa & Middle East Micro Data Center Revenue (Million USD) by Regions (2013-2018)
Table Africa & Middle East Micro Data Center Sales Volume (K Units) by Key Players (2013-2018)
Figure Africa & Middle East Micro Data Center Sales (K Units) and Growth Rate (2013-2018)
Table Global Micro Data Center Sales (K Units) by Rack Size (2013-2018)
Table Global Micro Data Center Sales Market Share by Rack Size (2013-2018)
Figure Global Micro Data Center Sales Market Share by Rack Size in 2017
Table Global Micro Data Center Revenue (Million USD) by Rack Size (2013-2018)
Table Global Micro Data Center Revenue Market Share by Rack Size (2013-2018)
Figure Global Micro Data Center Revenue Market Share by Rack Size in 2017
Table Global Micro Data Center Price (USD/Unit) by Rack Size (2013-2018)
Table Top Players of Less than 25 U Micro Data Center Products List
Figure Global Less than 25 U Micro Data Center Sales (K Units) and Growth Rate (2013-2018)
Table Top Players of 25 U - 40 U Micro Data Center Products List
Figure Global 25 U - 40 U Micro Data Center Sales (K Units) and Growth Rate (2013-2018)
Table Top Players of More than 40 U Micro Data Center Products List
Figure Global More than 40 U Micro Data Center Sales (K Units) and Growth Rate (2013-2018)
Table Global Micro Data Center Sales (K Units) by (2013-2018)
Table Global Micro Data Center Sales Market Share by (2013-2018)
Figure Global Micro Data Center Sales Market Share by in 2017
Table Global Micro Data Center Revenue (Million USD) by (2013-2018)
Table Global Micro Data Center Revenue Market Share by (2013-2018)
Figure Global Micro Data Center Revenue Market Share by in 2017
Table Global Micro Data Center Price (USD/Unit) by (2013-2018)
Table Global Micro Data Center Sales (K Units) by (2013-2018)
Table Global Micro Data Center Sales Market Share by (2013-2018)
Figure Global Micro Data Center Sales Market Share by in 2016
Table Global Micro Data Center Revenue (Million USD) by (2013-2018)
Table Global Micro Data Center Revenue Market Share by (2013-2018)
Figure Global Micro Data Center Revenue Market Share by in 2016
Table Global Micro Data Center Price (USD/Unit) by (2013-2018)
Table Eaton Corporation plc Company Details and Competitors
Table Eaton Corporation plc Key Micro Data Center Models and Performance
Table Eaton Corporation plc Micro Data Center Business SWOT Analysis and Forecast
Table Eaton Corporation plc Micro Data Center Output (K Units), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/Unit) and Gross Margin (%)(2013-2018)
Figure Eaton Corporation plc Micro Data Center Sales(Million Unit) and Growth Rate (%)(2013-2018)
Figure Eaton Corporation plc Micro Data Center Sales Market Share (%) in Global (2013-2018)
Figure Eaton Corporation plc Micro Data Center Sales Revenue(Million USD) and Growth Rate (%)(2013-2018)
Figure Eaton Corporation plc Micro Data Center Revenue Market Share (%) in Global (2013-2018)
Table Hitachi Ltd. Company Details and Competitors
Table Hitachi Ltd. Key Micro Data Center Models and Performance
Table Hitachi Ltd. Micro Data Center Business SWOT Analysis and Forecast
Table Hitachi Ltd. Micro Data Center Output (K Units), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/Unit) and Gross Margin (%)(2013-2018)
Figure Hitachi Ltd. Micro Data Center Sales(Million Unit) and Growth Rate (%)(2013-2018)
Figure Hitachi Ltd. Micro Data Center Sales Market Share (%) in Global (2013-2018)
Figure Hitachi Ltd. Micro Data Center Sales Revenue(Million USD) and Growth Rate (%)(2013-2018)
Figure Hitachi Ltd. Micro Data Center Revenue Market Share (%) in Global (2013-2018)
Table Panduit Corp. Company Details and Competitors
Table Panduit Corp. Key Micro Data Center Models and Performance
Table Panduit Corp. Micro Data Center Business SWOT Analysis and Forecast
Table Panduit Corp. Micro Data Center Output (K Units), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/Unit) and Gross Margin (%)(2013-2018)
Figure Panduit Corp. Micro Data Center Sales(Million Unit) and Growth Rate (%)(2013-2018)
Figure Panduit Corp. Micro Data Center Sales Market Share (%) in Global (2013-2018)
Figure Panduit Corp. Micro Data Center Sales Revenue(Million USD) and Growth Rate (%)(2013-2018)
Figure Panduit Corp. Micro Data Center Revenue Market Share (%) in Global (2013-2018)
Table Zellabox Dataracks Company Details and Competitors
Table Zellabox Dataracks Key Micro Data Center Models and Performance
Table Zellabox Dataracks Micro Data Center Business SWOT Analysis and Forecast
Table Zellabox Dataracks Micro Data Center Output (K Units), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/Unit) and Gross Margin (%)(2013-2018)
Figure Zellabox Dataracks Micro Data Center Sales(Million Unit) and Growth Rate (%)(2013-2018)
Figure Zellabox Dataracks Micro Data Center Sales Market Share (%) in Global (2013-2018)
Figure Zellabox Dataracks Micro Data Center Sales Revenue(Million USD) and Growth Rate (%)(2013-2018)
Figure Zellabox Dataracks Micro Data Center Revenue Market Share (%) in Global (2013-2018)
Table Hewlett Packard Enterprise Development LP Company Details and Competitors
Table Hewlett Packard Enterprise Development LP Key Micro Data Center Models and Performance
Table Hewlett Packard Enterprise Development LP Micro Data Center Business SWOT Analysis and Forecast
Table Hewlett Packard Enterprise Development LP Micro Data Center Output (K Units), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/Unit) and Gross Margin (%)(2013-2018)
Figure Hewlett Packard Enterprise Development LP Micro Data Center Sales(Million Unit) and Growth Rate (%)(2013-2018)
Figure Hewlett Packard Enterprise Development LP Micro Data Center Sales Market Share (%) in Global (2013-2018)
Figure Hewlett Packard Enterprise Development LP Micro Data Center Sales Revenue(Million USD) and Growth Rate (%)(2013-2018)
Figure Hewlett Packard Enterprise Development LP Micro Data Center Revenue Market Share (%) in Global (2013-2018)
Table Instant Data Centers Company Details and Competitors
Table Instant Data Centers Key Micro Data Center Models and Performance
Table Instant Data Centers Micro Data Center Business SWOT Analysis and Forecast
Table Instant Data Centers Micro Data Center Output (K Units), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/Unit) and Gross Margin (%)(2013-2018)
Figure Instant Data Centers Micro Data Center Sales(Million Unit) and Growth Rate (%)(2013-2018)
Figure Instant Data Centers Micro Data Center Sales Market Share (%) in Global (2013-2018)
Figure Instant Data Centers Micro Data Center Sales Revenue(Million USD) and Growth Rate (%)(2013-2018)
Figure Instant Data Centers Micro Data Center Revenue Market Share (%) in Global (2013-2018)
Table Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. Company Details and Competitors
Table Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. Key Micro Data Center Models and Performance
Table Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. Micro Data Center Business SWOT Analysis and Forecast
Table Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. Micro Data Center Output (K Units), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/Unit) and Gross Margin (%)(2013-2018)
Figure Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. Micro Data Center Sales(Million Unit) and Growth Rate (%)(2013-2018)
Figure Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. Micro Data Center Sales Market Share (%) in Global (2013-2018)
Figure Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. Micro Data Center Sales Revenue(Million USD) and Growth Rate (%)(2013-2018)
Figure Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. Micro Data Center Revenue Market Share (%) in Global (2013-2018)
Table Rittal GmbH & Co. KG Company Details and Competitors
Table Rittal GmbH & Co. KG Key Micro Data Center Models and Performance
Table Rittal GmbH & Co. KG Micro Data Center Business SWOT Analysis and Forecast
Table Rittal GmbH & Co. KG Micro Data Center Output (K Units), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/Unit) and Gross Margin (%)(2013-2018)
Figure Rittal GmbH & Co. KG Micro Data Center Sales(Million Unit) and Growth Rate (%)(2013-2018)
Figure Rittal GmbH & Co. KG Micro Data Center Sales Market Share (%) in Global (2013-2018)
Figure Rittal GmbH & Co. KG Micro Data Center Sales Revenue(Million USD) and Growth Rate (%)(2013-2018)
Figure Rittal GmbH & Co. KG Micro Data Center Revenue Market Share (%) in Global (2013-2018)
Table Schneider Electric SE Company Details and Competitors
Table Schneider Electric SE Key Micro Data Center Models and Performance
Table Schneider Electric SE Micro Data Center Business SWOT Analysis and Forecast
Table Schneider Electric SE Micro Data Center Output (K Units), Revenue (Million USD), Price (USD/Unit) and Gross Margin (%)(2013-2018)
Figure Schneider Electric SE Micro Data Center Sales(Million Unit) and Growth Rate (%)(2013-2018)
Figure Schneider Electric SE Micro Data Center Sales Market Share (%) in Global (2013-2018)
Figure Schneider Electric SE Micro Data Center Sales Revenue(Million USD) and Growth Rate (%)(2013-2018)
Figure Schneider Electric SE Micro Data Center Revenue Market Share (%) in Global (2013-2018)
Table Global Micro Data Center Sales (K Units) by Appliance (2013-2018)
Figure Global Micro Data Center Sales Market Share by Appliance (2013-2018)
Figure Global Micro Data Center Sales Market Share by Appliance in 2017
Figure Global IT and Telecom Micro Data Center Sales (K Units) and Growth Rate (2013-2018)
Figure Global Retail Micro Data Center Sales (K Units) and Growth Rate (2013-2018)
Figure Global Education Micro Data Center Sales (K Units) and Growth Rate (2013-2018)
Figure Global Healthcare Micro Data Center Sales (K Units) and Growth Rate (2013-2018)
Figure Global Energy Micro Data Center Sales (K Units) and Growth Rate (2013-2018)
Figure Global Micro Data Center Sales (K Units) and Growth Rate (%) Forecast (2018-2023)
Figure Global Micro Data Center Revenue (Million USD) and Growth Rate Forecast (2018-2023)
Figure Global Micro Data Center Price (USD/Unit) Trend Forecast (2018-2023)
Table Global Micro Data Center Sales (K Units) Forecast by Regions (2018-2023)
Table Global Micro Data Center Sales Volume Share Forecast by Regions (2018-2023)
Figure Global Micro Data Center Sales Volume Share Forecast by Regions (2018-2023)
Figure Global Micro Data Center Sales Volume Share Forecast by Regions in 2023
Table Global Micro Data Center Sales (K Units) Forecast by Application (2018-2023)
Figure Global Micro Data Center Sales Volume Market Share Forecast by Application (2018-2023)
Figure Global Micro Data Center Sales Volume Market Share Forecast by Application in 2023
Table Global Micro Data Center Sales (K Units) Forecast by Rack Size (2018-2023)
Figure Global Micro Data Center Sales (K Units) Forecast by Rack Size (2018-2023)
Figure Global Micro Data Center Sales Volume Market Share Forecast by Rack Size in 2023
Table Global Micro Data Center Sales (K Units) Forecast by (2018-2023)
Figure Global Micro Data Center Sales (K Units) Forecast by (2018-2023)
Figure Global Micro Data Center Sales Volume Market Share Forecast by in 2023